Friday, September 5, 2008

A RESEARCH KNOW HOW FOR PHYSIOS INTERESTED IN RESEARCH

Following are 4 levels of research evidences: (you may find this in my forth coming book)
1) Convincing evidence. This is based on substantial number of studies (mainly RCTs). This evidence shows consistent biologically plausible associations between exposure and disease, with little or no evidence negating this association.

2) Probable evidence. This is based on substantial number of studies. This evidence shows fairly consistent biologically plausible associations between exposure and disease, with some evidence negating this association. Shortcomings such as insufficient duration of trials (or studies); insufficient trials (or studies) available; inadequate sample sizes; incomplete follow-up in the evidence prohibit a more definite judgment.

3) Possible evidence. This is based on small number of studies mainly on case- control and cross-sectional studies. Other studies it takes in consideration are insufficient randomized controlled trials, observational studies or non-randomized controlled trials. It also further supported by non-epidemiological studies, such as clinical and laboratory investigations. This evidence shows tentative biologically plausible associations between exposure and disease.

4) Insufficient evidence. Limited or no evidence is available from RCTs. Evidence based on findings of only a few studies which are suggestive, but are insufficient to establish an association between exposure and disease. More well designed research is required to support the tentative associations.

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