Wednesday, June 3, 2009

American College of Sports Medicine- position stand (year 2009) for progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.

Overload is a fundamental criterion for strength training. In order to stimulate further adaptation toward specific training goals, progressive resistance training (RT) protocols are necessary.

Fundamental principles:

The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include

1) Use of all verities of muscle contraction: Use of concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric muscle actions.
2) Performance of bilateral and unilateral single- and multiple-joint exercises.
3) Sequential protocol: Strength programs sequence exercises to optimize the preservation of exercise intensity i.e.
a. Large before small muscle group exercises.
b. Multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises
c. Higher-intensity before lower-intensity exercises).

How the novices should go about their strength training:
Novice refers to untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years. For novice, training, it is recommended as follows:

1. Loads correspond to a repetition range of an 8-12 repetition maximum (RM).
2. Frequency should be 2-3 days a week.

How the intermediate & advanced should go about their strength training:
Intermediate refers to individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience. And advanced refers to individuals with years of RT experience. For Intermediate & advanced training, it is recommended as follows:

1. Individuals should use:

a. a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM)
b. These high load exercises should use 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets.
c. These high load exercises should be performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s CON; 1-2 s ECC).

2. When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number.

3. Frequency should be 3-4 days a week for intermediate & 4-5 days a week for advanced training.

Hypertrophy training:
Similar program designs as said above are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. In such cases
1. Loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone.
2. Rest between loadings: 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity.
Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy.

Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies:
1) Strength training and
2) Use of light loads (0-60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises; 30-60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 3-5 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise (three to five sets).
It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises especially those involving the total body.

Endurance training:
For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that
1. Light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (>15) using short rest periods (<90 s)

Bottom line:

Recommendations should be applied in context and should be contingent upon an individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.

American College of Sports Medicine; Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Mar;41(3):687-708.

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